Tuesday 24 December 2013

OCCUPATIONS - Industry & Manufacturing

OCCUPATIONS - Industry & Manufacturing

Raja Govindlal Pitty, a leading Marwari merchant and banker of Hyderabad & Bombay bought over cotton mills in the 1870's

During the 1st World War, encouraged by a lack of competitive imported goods from abroad and government assistance, Indian industrialization took on some impetus. In eastern India for the 1st time major enterprise emerged that were Indian-owned. In trade too, Indians, among them Marwaris expanded their share.

Until World War 1, Marwaris had not been prominent in Industry. The early Bombay cotton textile factories were all founded by Gujrati Banias and Parsees. The Brilas were in the forefront in Industrialization of all Marwaris. It was estimated by an insider that they increased from a party Rs.20 lac to Rs.80 lac during the war. They went on to establish their first Jute mill in Calcutta in 1919, Cotton Textile Mill in Delhi in 1920 and started Gwalior Cotton Textile mill in Delhi in 1921.

At the dissolution of the Currimbbhoy and Petit Cotton mill group in the 1930's several of their Bombay mills were taken over by Marwaris.

The protective tariff for sugar in 1932 led to the construction of a large number of sugar mills. Government encouragement helped the cement Industry. Birla built 3 giant sugar mills and Dalmia built 1. Ram Kishen Dalmia became a major factor in the Cement Industry.

Resistance to the Industrial drive was however encountered. The Jute Mills Association refused to admit the Marwari owned mills, and the jute transport companies charged them discriminatory rates. But then economic strength of the large Marwari houses eas such that they were able to overcome these obstacles. 

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